For all but the last 5000 years of human history, your ancestors had very little starchy food available to eat - fruit, nuts and a few roots, plus honey as a rare and dangerous treat. Most of their food was vegetation and protein from insects, animals and fish.
This made survival through the winter problemmatic, as people migrated away from the Equator. Roots rot easily, and dried flesh is unpalatable and perishable.
The invention of crop farming, and successful breeding of cereals for food, were big steps forward. Cereals do not rot easily. Because of the way starch grains are formed, there is only one point on each grain by which moulds can attack it. So at last we had a reliable source of energy that could be trusted to last right through the winter. (We also struggled to digest it, of course, but quickly devised ways to soften and split the starch grains for easier digestion.)
This made available far more metabolic fuel than we had ever had before, which was fine for as long as we toiled sufficiently to use it all up. But once the Industrial Revolution got under way, our customary levels of physical work dropped dramatically. By the 20th Century, machinery was doing most of the work for us. Besides, some of that work was refining starch into white flour and sugar which made the problem much worse.
This was the origin of the glut of starchy food we now take for granted, and contributed hugely to the current obesity epidemic.
You digest starchy food and sugars by breaking them down to their basic components and absorbing these into your intestinal bloodstream, which flows direct to your liver before going anywhere else. Some is stored and used there, but most of it passes on into your general circulation. The level in the blood to your pancreas regulates how much of the hormone insulin is released from store by the special cells there that produce it. Insulin then circulates with the sugar to all the tissues that need it as fuel and opens the gate to let it in.
This mechanism has some delay built into it and works best when sugar is absorbed from your intestine in a steady trickle. This happens automatically with whole natural foods whose raw starches are large and complex like felled trees; your enzymes have to saw the sugars off each branch, one log at a time.
What is more, the plantation is dense with undergrowth (the indigestible cellulose fibre in natural food), which slows down the work of removing the logs. Lorries (insulin) arriving one at a time can easily cope with a flexible daily routine for carrying them away.
Refined and processed foods present quite a different problem. Their simple carbohydrates behave like a deluge of ready-sawn logs falling on clear ground. During the shower you need every lorry you can get to stop the log-pile spilling all over the road. But no sooner have you mobilized your fleet and workforce than the shower stops and the work ends as suddenly as it began — only to start up again whenever you next eat, several times each day.
This is very stressful for your pancreas, which cannot synchronize your response to such heavy and erratic demand. So your blood sugar level ranges above and below your ideal, more and more wildly as your pancreas fatigues. People vary a lot in how fast this happens. Some families are more susceptible to complete pancreatic collapse than others, making the need for insulin treatment - Type One diabetes - more likely in their members.
Hypoglycaemia may happen first, or diabetes may show only during pregnancy. But decades of abuse inevitably weaken any pancreas, making many people mildly diabetic by their forties. Tablet treatments only loot your insulin stores, exhausting them eventually. Injections replace your own insulin imperfectly and do not seem to prevent degenerative complications like arteriosclerosis from eventually setting in.
What to do
1. Whether or not diabetes runs strongly in your family, protect everyone with a healthy diet which excludes refined flour, sugar and all manufactured and refined foods containing it. Exercise a bit every day, and strenuously for 30 minutes three times a week. If you do not toil really hard, you do not need starchy food at all. Drink ample water, at least two litres daily.
Beware particularly of the food additives Sucrose, Sugar, Glucose (or Dried Glucose Syrup), Dextrose, Fructose, Hydrogenated Glucose Syrup, Hydrogenated High Maltose Glucose Syrup, Invert Sugar, Isomalt, Lactose, Maltose and Xylitol — all stressful refined sugars. Additives with "Starch’ in their names are best avoided until more is known about their effects on human digestion.
See that you get whole wheat (or wheat germ and bran) regularly for the chromium and manganese they contain, both vital to the health of your pancreas. Raw carrot, and lemon juice (instead of milk in tea) both have anti-diabetic properties.
2. Several nutrient trace metals have been directly linked with resistance to diabetes — chromium especially, but only when linked with the protein known as ‘Glucose Tolerance Factor’. If your family is susceptible to diabetes supplement the above diet with food-state GTF-Chromium 60mcg twice daily, food-state Zinc 15mg once daily and food-state Manganese 20mg twice a week (see Minerals for details of these). Be sure to exercise regularly to keep reasonably fit. Do not allow yourself to get appreciably overweight.
3. Once diabetes is discovered you need to adopt all these measures in full, doubling the GTF-chromium and manganese supplements for three months. Balance your total carbohydrate intake carefully against your physical activity and confine it to naturally starchy foods such as whole vegetables, fresh fruit and whole-grain cereals. Eat plenty of dark green leaves fresh in season. Add food-state Vitamin B Complex (2-4 tablets daily, up to midday).
4. Numerous herbs and homoeopathic medicines are available but you should contact a Medical Herbalist or Homoeopathic Practitioner for personal assistance, through (contact details given on the therapy info page for these therapies).
5. If tablets or insulin prove necessary despite your best efforts persevere with them nonetheless. People who lean more heavily than necessary on their medication are more likely to suffer the complications of diabetes — high blood pressure, coronary, stroke, blindness and insufficient circulation to their legs.
6. Bring up your children this way, to prevent diabetes in their own and their children’s lives.

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